A study of the major countries of Europe in the era of the two world wars (1914-1945), with special attention to international relations, and political, economic, and social developments. The course will emphasize Germany, France, and England, but can accommodate other interests as well. Most suitable for third- and fourth- year students with some background in modern history as well as graduate students. There will be weekly meetings to discuss readings, but no final exam. One student will lead off discussion each week. Students signing up for HIEU 5312 will in most cases write a bibliographical paper covering their readings during the term. Students seeking credit for HIEU 4501 and needing to satisfy the second writing requirement will have to produce three short papers on subjects of their choice.